Single to multi-wythe beams.

The beam module designs single-wythe beams composed of a variety of masonry unit types. Beams can be composed of semi-solid blocks or hollow blocks. Single-wythe beams composed of hollow bricks are also permitted and are modelled identically to hollow block beams. In addition, MASS™ Version 1.1 also models double-wythe beams composed of solid masonry units and a cavity in the middle.

beam module

MASS™ Version 1.1 designs beams in accordance with CSA S304.1-04: 11, which allows the following beam configurations:

  • Fully grouted hollow or semi-solid concrete masonry, constructed with running bond
  • Fully grouted hollow clay brick masonry, constructed with running bond
  • Solid brick units, constructed with running bond

These beam configurations can be constructed using a considerable variety of masonry units. For beams, MASS™ Version 1.1 supports the following block types: hollow, half-high, half-block, bond, lintel, and knock-out. The default concrete block sizes available include 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm units. The default block strengths include 15, 20, 25, and 30 MPa. The default brick types include: hollow, and solid. The default brick sizes available include 190 cm (for hollow bricks), 90 cm (for solid bricks). The default brick strength for the solid brick is 55 MPa. For hollow brick, the brick strength is typically provided by the manufacturer.

The support conditions available in the beam module include: pinned, roller, fixed, and free. Beams are heavily loaded in the vertical direction, but can experience lateral and axial loading. MASS™ Version 1.1 considers vertical loading, and axial loading due to expansion. An applied load typically places a portion of the cross-section of the beam in tension, and another portion in compression. Because masonry is typically strong in compression but weak in tension, beams must be reinforced. MASS™ Version 1.1 can place up to three layers of steel, with up to three steel bars in each layer at either beam extreme (bottom or top of the beam). In addition, intermediate steel is automatically placed where needed. The default steel bar sizes available include 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm diameter bars.

The beam module performs engineering calculations to design for the moment and deflection. In addition, it provides shear design (which may include the addition of stirrups), as well as bearing design (which includes the addition of bearing plates).