Design single-wythe masonry walls.

wall screen capture

The wall module designs single-wythe concrete block masonry walls, which can be laid using a running bond or stack pattern arrangement.

MASS™ Version 1.1 designs out-of-plane walls in accordance with CSA S304.1-04: 7 and CSA S304.1-04: 10, and allows the following wall configurations:

  • Unreinforced, ungrouted block masonry walls using hollow, semi-solid or solid units
  • Unreinforced, fully grouted hollow and semi-solid block masonry
  • Reinforced, fully grouted hollow and semi-solid block masonry
  • Reinforced, partially grouted hollow and semi-solid block masonry

These wall configurations can be constructed using a considerable variety of masonry units. For walls, MASS™ Version 1.1 supports the following block types: hollow, semi-solid, solid, half-high, half-block, and bond block. The default concrete block sizes available include 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 cm units. The default block strengths include 15, 20, 25, and 30 MPa. MASS™ Version 1.1does not support using brick units for out-of-plane wall design.

The support conditions available in the wall module include: hinged, stiff, or free. Loadbearing out-of-plane walls are typically loaded laterally, normal to the face of the wall, but may also experience axial loading. Depending on the loading and the support conditions, out-of-plane walls may experience both vertical flexure and horizontal flexure. For this version however, design is limited to vertical flexure.

Depending on the applied load, the support conditions, and the resistance of the masonry, an out-of-plane wall may or may not need to be reinforced. For walls that require reinforcement, up to two steel bars per cell can be placed. The bars can also be off-set (that is, not centred within the cell). The program fixes the spacing of the reinforcing bars to the largest allowed by users and reduces this spacing if necessary to achieve a successful design in accordance with CSA S304.1-04: 10.15. The default steel bar sizes available include 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm diameter bars.

The program deals only with per metre length for the design of out-of plane bending of loadbearing walls. The wall module performs engineering calculations to design for the axial load, moment (including slenderness effects) and deflection (including secondary effects). This design includes a detailed P-M diagram. In addition, the wall module provides shear design.